My dissertation bibliography, in case it’s of use to anyone. Enjoy!

“Jones Act.” Washington, D.C, Library of Congress. 1998. Web. August 17, 2009 <>.

Abell, Troy and Larry Lyon. “Do the Differences Make a Difference? An Empirical Evaluation of the Culture of Poverty in the United States.” American Ethnologist 6.3 (1979): 601-21. Print.

Acey, Katherine, Terry Boggis et al. “Beyond Same-Sex Marriage: A New Strategic Vision for All Our Families and Relationships.” 2006. Web. August 14, 2009 <>.

Acosta-Belén, Edna. “Beyond Island Boundaries: Ethnicity, Gender, and Cultural Revitalization in Nuyorican Literature.” Callaloo: A Journal of African-American and African Arts and Letters 15.4 (1992): 979-98. Print.

Acosta, Ivonne. La Mordaza: Puerto Rico, 1948-1957. Rio Piedras [Puerto Rico]: Editorial Edil, 1987. Print. 

Agosín, Marjorie, ed. These Are Not Sweet Girls: Latin American Women Poets. Buffalo: White Pine Press, 1994. Web.

Algarín, Miguel. “Nuyorican Aesthetics.” Images and identities: the Puerto Rican in two world contexts. Ed. Asela Rodríguez-Seda de Laguna. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books, 1987. 161-63. Print.

———. “Nuyorican Literature.” MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States 8.2 (1981): 89-92. Print.

Algarín, Miguel and Miguel Piñero. Nuyorican Poetry: An Anthology of Puerto Rican Words and Feelings. New York: Morrow, 1975. Print. 

Allatson, Paul. Key Terms in Latino/a Cultural and Literary Studies. Wiley-Blackwell, 2007. Print. 

Alvarez, Manuel José. “Elections in Puerto Rico: 1998 Status Plebiscite Vote Summary.” Web. August 10, 2008 <>.

Ambert, Alba N. A Perfect Silence. Houston, Tex.: Arte Público Press, 1995. Print. 

“American Entry Into World War I, 1917.” Washington, D.C, U.S. Department of State. Web. August 17, 2009 <>.

Aponte-Parés, Luis, Jossianna Arroyo et al. “Puerto Rican Queer Sexualities.” Centro Journal 19.1 (2007): 3-24. Print.

Artemis, Black. Picture Me Rollin’. New York: New American Library, 2005. Print. 

Augenbraum, Harold. “Yo Yo Boing!” Library Journal 123(15).15 (1998): 110. Print.

Ayala, César J. and Rafael Bernabe. Puerto Rico in the American Century: A History Since 1898. Book; Internet Resource Date of Entry: 20061130 ed., Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007. Print. 

Baker, Susan S. Understanding Mainland Puerto Rican Poverty. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002. Print. 

Bakhtin, M.M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981. Print. 

Ballon, Hilary. “Robert Moses and Urban Renewal: The Title I Program.” Robert Moses and the modern city: the transformation of New York. Eds. Hilary Ballon and Kenneth T Jackson. 1st ed ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 2007. 94-115. Print.

Bhabha, Homi. “The Other Question.” Contemporary Postcolonial Theory: A Reader. Ed. Padmini Mongia. London: Arnold, 1997. 37-54. Print.

Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London ; New York: Routledge, 1994. Print. 

Bilby, Kenneth. “Swearing by the Past, Swearing to the Future: Sacred Oaths, Alliances, and Treaties among the Guianese and Jamaican Maroons.” Ethnohistory 44.4 (1997): 655-89. Print.

Binder, Wolfgang. “A Hispanic Voice of Satire: Ed Vega’s Portrait of the Puerto Rican Community.” Voix et langages aux Etats-Unis. Ed. Serge Ricard. Vol. 1. Provence: Pubs. de l’Univ. de Provence, 1992. 229-43. Print.

Blackman, Nicole. Aloud: Voices From the Nuyorican Poets Cafe. Holt Paperbacks, 1994. Print. 

Blumenfeld, Warren J. “How Homophobia Hurts Everyone.” Readings for Diversity and Social Justice. New York: Routledge, 2000. 267-75. Print.

Braschi, Giannina. “El Tiempo De Los Objectos O Los Seres En La Luz: La Poesia De Becquer.” Dissertation. State University of New York at Stonybrook, 1981. Web.

———. El Imperio De Los Sueños. Barcelona: Anthropos Editorial del Hombre, 1988. Print. 

———. Empire of Dreams. Trans. Tess O’Dwyer. New Haven: Yale UP, 1994. Print. 

———. Yo-Yo Boing! Pittsburg: Latin American Literary Review Press, 1998. Print. Discoveries.

Briggs, Laura. Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Print. American Crossroads ; 11.

———. “La Vida, Moynihan, and Other Libels: Migration, Social Science, and the Making of the Puerto Rican Welfare Queen.” Centro Journal 14.1 (2002): 74-101. Print.

Bruck, Lauryn. “Cunningham on the poor: ‘They’re poor because they lack values, ethics, and morals’.” Media Matters for America. Eds. Eric Boehlert and Jameson Foser 2009. Web. 

Burton, Gideon O. “Irony.” Silva Rhetoricae. Brigham Young University. Web. <>.

Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’. New York: Routledge, 1993. Print. 

———. Undoing Gender. New York ; London: Routledge, 2004. Print. 

Cabán, Pedro A. Constructing a Colonial People: Puerto Rico and the United States, 1898-1932. Boulder: Westview Press, 2001. Print. 

Caminero-Santangelo, Marta. “’Puerto Rican Negro’: Defining Race in Piri Thomas’s Down These Mean Streets.” MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States 29.2 (2004): 205-26. Print.

Caro, Robert A. The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. New York: Knopf, 1974. Print. 

Carr, Raymond. Puerto Rico, a Colonial Experiment. New York: New York University Press, 1984. Print. 

Carroll, Julia. “Spanish Affect and Its Effects: Bilingual Process in Giannina Braschi’s Yo-Yo Boing!Leading ladies: mujeres en la literatura hispana y en las artes. Eds. Yvonne Fuentes and Margaret Parker. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006. Print.

Castillo, Debra A. Redreaming America: Toward a Bilingual American Culture. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005. Print. 

Chenault, Lawrence R. The Puerto Rican Migrant in New York City. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938. Print. 

Cheng, Anne Anlin. The Melancholy of Race. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print. 

Cofer, Judith Ortiz. Silent Dancing: A Partial Remembrance of a Puerto Rican Childhood. Arte Publico Press, 1990. Print. 

———. The Line of the Sun. University of Georgia Press, 1991. Print. 

———. The Latin Deli: Telling the Lives of Barrio Women. W. W. Norton & Company, 1995. Print. 

———. Woman in Front of the Sun: On Becoming a Writer. University of Georgia Press, 2000. Print. 

———. The Year of Our Revolution: Love and Rebellion in the 1960s: Stories and Poems. Puffin, 2000. Print. 

———. Call Me Maria. Scholastic Paperbacks, 2006. Print. 

———. An Island Like You. Orchard Books, 2009. Print. 

Cohen, Cathy J. “Punks, Bulldaggers, and Welfare Queens: The Radical Potential of Queer Politics?” GLQ 3 (1997): 437-65. Print.

Coward, Barbara E., Joe R. Feagin, and J. Allen Jr. Williams. “The Culture of Poverty Debate: Some Additional Data.” Social Problems 21.5 (1974): 621-34. Print.

Cruz-Janzen, Marta. “Ethnic Identity and Racial Formations: Race and Racism American-Style and a lo latino.” Transnational Latina/o communities: politics, processes, and cultures. Eds. Carlos G. Vélez-Ibáńez, Anna Sampaio, and Manolo González-Estay. Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. 147-66. Print.

Cruz-Malavé, Arnaldo. “Toward an Art of Transvestism: Colonialism and Homosexuality in Puerto Rican Literature.” ¿Entiendes?: queer readings, Hispanic writings. Eds. Emilie L. Bergmann and Paul Julian Smith. Series Q; Durham: Duke University Press, 1995. 137-67. Print.

———. “’What a Tangled Web!’: Masculinity, Abjection and the Foundations of Puerto Rican Literature in the United States.” Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 8.1 (1996): 132-51. Print.

De Jesús, Joy. Growing Up Puerto Rican: An Anthology. 1st ed., New York: Morrow, 1997. Print. 

de Man, Paul. Aesthetic Ideology. Trans. Andrzej Warminski. Vol. 65 Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Print. Theory and History of Literature.

Dessús, Virginia. “Identidad(es) postmoderna(s): Yo-Yo Boing! de Giannina Braschi.” Torre: Revista de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 6.22 (2001): 413-26. Print.

Diner, Hasia R. Lower East Side Memories: A Jewish Place in America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. Print. 

Dinwiddie, William. Puerto Rico: Its Conditions and Possibilities. New York and London: Harper & Bros, 1899. Print. 

Dippie, Brian W. The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1982. Print. 

Dirlik, Arif. “Culturalism as Hegemonic Ideology and Liberating Practice.” Cultural Critique 6 (1987): 13-50. Print.

———. “Literature/Identity: Transnationalism, Narrative and Representation.” The Review of Education, Pedgogy, and Cultural Studies 24 (2002): 209-34. Print.

Duany, Jorge. The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island & in the United States. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Print. 

Eames, Edwin and Judith Goode. “On Lewis’ Culture of Poverty Concept.” Current Anthropology 11.4/5 (1970): 479-82. Print.

Edelman, Lee. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004. Print. Series Q.

Emerson, Rana A. “”Where My Girls At?”: Negotiating Black Womanhood in Music Videos.” Gender and Society 16.1 (2002): 115-35. Print.

Fernandez, Manny. “Barred From Public Housing, Even to See Family.” New York Times 2007, sec N.Y./ Region: A1. Web.

Fernandez, Ronald. The Disenchanted Island: Puerto Rico and the United States in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed ed., Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1996. Print. 

Findlay, Eileen. Imposing Decency: The Politics of Sexuality and Race in Puerto Rico, 1870-1920. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999. Print. American Encounters/Global Interactions.

Fitzpatrick, Joseph P. Puerto Rican Americans: The Meaning of Migration to the Mainland. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,: Prentice-Hall, 1971. Print. 

Flores, Juan. Divided Borders: Essays on Puerto Rican Identity. Houston, TX: Arte Público Press, 1993. Print. 

———. From Bomba to Hip-Hop: Puerto Rican Culture and Latino Identity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. Print. Popular Cultures, Everyday Lives.

Flores, Juan and George Yudice. “Living Borders/Buscando America: Languages of Latino Self-Formation.” Social Text 24 (1990): 57-84. Print.

Flores, William Vincent and Rina Benmayor. Latino Cultural Citizenship: Claiming Identity, Space, and Rights. Boston: Beacon Press, 1997. Print. 

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. 2nd Vintage Books ed., New York: Vintage Books, 1995. Print. 

Fraser, Robert. Lifting the Sentence: A Poetics of Postcolonial Fiction. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2000. Print. 

Fuentes-Rivera, Ada. “From Home to the Crack House: Aproximaciones a La Narrativa De Abraham Rodriguez, Jr.” Dissertation. State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1999. Print.

Garrigós, Cristina. “Chicken with the Head Cut Off: Una conversación con Giannina Braschi.” Voces de América: American Voices. Ed. Laura P. Alonso Gallo. Cádiz: Advana Vieja, 2004. 147-63. Print.

“Giannina Braschi.” Contemporary Authors Online (2009)Web.

Glazer, Nathan and Daniel P. Moynihan. Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York City. Cambridge, Mass.,: M.I.T. Press, 1963. Print. 

Gordon, Linda. “The New Feminist Scholarship on the Welfare State.” Women, the state, and welfare. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990. 9-35. Print.

———. Pitied But Not Entitled: Single Mothers and the History of Welfare, 1890-1935. New York: Free Press, 1994. Print. 

Granberry, Julian and Gary Vescelius. Languages of the Pre-Columbian Antilles. University Alabama Press, 2004. Print. 

Guitar, Lynne Anne. “Cultural Genesis: Relationships Among Indians, Africans and Spaniards in Rural Hispaniola, First Half of the Sixteenth Century.” Dissertation. Vanderbilt University, 1998. Web.

Guzmán, Manolo. Gay Hegemony / Latino Homosexualities. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. Latino Communities.

Halberstam, Judith. In a Queer Time and Place: Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives. New York: New York University Press, 2005. Print. Sexual Cultures: New Directions From the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies.

Halpern, Robert. Fragile Families, Fragile Solutions: A History of Supportive Services for Families in Poverty. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Print. 

Haney López, Ian F. “Chance, Context, and Choice in the Social Construction of Race.” The Latino/a Condition: A Critical Reader. Eds. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic. New York, NY: New York UP, 1998. 9-16. Print.

Harvey, David L. and Michael H. Reed. “The Culture of Poverty: An Ideological Analysis.” Sociological Perspectives 39.4 (1996): 465-95. Print.

Haslip-Viera, Gabriel. Taíno Revival: Critical Perspectives on Puerto Rican Identity and Cultural Politics. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2001. Print. 

Ingrid. “Mancha de platano.” Boricua in Texas. Weblog entry. 2007. Web. April 9, 2009 <>.

Jackson, Kenneth T. “Robert Moses and the Rise of New York: The Power Broker in Perspective.” Robert Moses and the modern city: the transformation of New York. Ed. Hilary Ballon. 1st ed ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 2007. 67-71. Print.

Janer, Zilkia. Puerto Rican Nation-Building Literature: Impossible Romance. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005. Print. New Directions in Puerto Rican Studies.

Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation of Borikén. “Welcome to the Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation of Borikén.” 2006. Web. January 9, 2008 <>.

Johnson, Barbara. A World of Difference. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Print. 

Chinea, Jorge L. “Race, Colonial Exploitation and West Indian Immigration in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico, 1800-1850.” The Americas 52.4 (1996): 495-519. Print.

Katz, M. B. In the Shadow of the Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in America. New York: Basic Books, 1986. Print. 

Katz, MB, MJ Stern, and JJ Fader. “The New African American Inequality.” Journal of American History 92 (2005): 75-108. Print.

Keyes, Cheryl L. “Empowering Self, Making Choices, Creating Spaces: Black Female Identity via Rap Music Performance.” The Journal of American Folklore 113.449 (2000): 255-69. Print.

La Fountain-Stokes, Lawrence. “Tomboy Tantrums and Queer Infatuations: Reading Lesbianism in Magali García Ramis’s Felices días, tío Sergio.” Tortilleras: Hispanic and U.S. Latina lesbian expression. Eds. Lourdes Torres and Inmaculada Pertusa. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003. Print.

Landers, Jane. “Slavery in the Lower South.” OAH Magazine of History, 17.3 (2003): 23-27. Print.

Leacock, Eleanor Burke, ed. The Culture of Poverty: A Critique. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971. Print.

Leeds, Anthony. “The Concept of the ‘Culture of Poverty’: Conceptual, Logical, and Empirical Problems, with Perspectives from Brazil and Peru.” The Culture of Poverty: A Critique. Ed. Eleanor Burke Leacock. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971. 226-85. Print.

Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher. “A Talk With Piri Thomas.” New York Times (1857-Current file) 1967, sec BR: 44. Web.

Levins Morales, Aurora. “Call for Submissions: OtheRicans: Voices of the Greater Puerto Rican Diaspora.” Ciencia PR. Web. <>.

Lewis, Oscar. Five Families: Mexican Case Studies in the Culture of Poverty. New York: Basic Books, 1959. Print. 

———. La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty—San Juan and New York. New York: Random House, 1966. Print. 

“Library of Congress Classification Outline: Class P – Language and Literature.” Web. <>.

Lipski, John M. A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents. Cambridge, UK ; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print. 

López, Adalberto and James F Petras. Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans: Studies in History and Society. [Cambridge, Mass.]: Schenkman Pub. Co.; [distributed by Halsted Press, New York, 1974. Print. 

Lopez, Erika. Flaming Iguanas: An Illustrated All-Girl Road Novel Thing. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. Print. 

———. Lap Dancing for Mommy: Tender Stories of Disgust, Blame, and Inspiration. Seattle: Seal Press: Distributed to the trade by Publishers Group West, 1997. Print. 

———. They Call Me Mad Dog!: A Story for Bitter, Lonely People. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. Print. 

———. Hoochie Mama: La Otra Carne Blanca. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. Print. 

Loustau, Laura R. “Giannina Braschi y un bilingüismo sin fronteras.” Ventana Abierta 4.14 (2003): 17-20. Print.

Luis, William. “Black Latinos Speak: The Politics of Race in Piri Thomas’s Down These Mean Streets.” Indiana Journal of Hispanic Literatures 12 (1998): 27-49. Print.

MacQuarrie, Kim. The Last Days of the Incas. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007. Print. 

McCune, Jeffrey Quinn, Jr. “Doin’ the Down Low, Remixin’ the Closet: Black Masculinity and the Politics of Sexual Passing.” Dissertation. 2007. Print.

Mele, Christopher. Selling the Lower East Side: Culture, Real Estate, and Resistance. St. Paul: University of Minnesota Press, 2000. Print. 

Mendieta-Lombardo, Eva and Zaida A. Cintron. “Marked and Unmarked Choices of Code Switching in Bilingual Poetry.” Hispania: A Journal Devoted to the Interests of the Teaching of Spanish and Portuguese 78.3 (1995): 565-72. Print.

“Michelle Rodriguez Has Trash Time.” 2009. Web. January 9, 2009 <>.

Miller, Marilyn and Marian Faux, eds. New York Public Library American History Desk Reference. New York: Stonesong Press, 1997. Print.

Mills, C. Wright. The Puerto Rican Journey: New York’s Newest Migrants. [1st ] ed., New York, 1950. Print. 

Miner Solá, Edwin. Diccionario Taino Ilustrado. 1. ed., [Puerto Rico]: Ediciones Servilibros, 2002. Print. Serie Puerto Rico Prehistórico ; V. 1;

Mohr, Eugene V. The Nuyorican Experience: Literature of the Puerto Rican Minority. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982. Print. Contributions in American Studies, No. 62.

Mohr, Nicholasa. In Nueva York. New York: Dell Pub. Co., 1979. Print. 

———. Rituals of Survival: A Woman’s Portfolio. Houston: Arte Público Press, 1985. Print. 

———. El Bronx Remembered: A Novella and Stories. 1st Harper Keypoint ed., New York, NY: HarperKeypoint, 1993. Print. 

———. A Matter of Pride and Other Stories. Houston, TX: Arte Público Press, 1997. Print. 

Moraga, Cherríe. Loving in the War Years: Lo Que Nunca Pasó Por Sus Labios. Expanded ed., Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press, 2000. Print. 

Moynihan, Daniel P. “The Negro Family: The Case For National Action.” Office of Policy Planning and Research, United States Department of Labor. 1965. Web. January 26, 2009 <>.

Muñoz, José Esteban. Disidentifications: Queers of Color and the Performance of Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. Print. Cultural Studies of the Americas ; V. 2.

Navarro, JM. Creating Tropical Yankees: Social Science Textbooks and US Ideological Control in Puerto Rico, 1898-1908. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print. 

New York State Department of Correctional Services. “Program Services.” New York State Department of Correctional Services. 2009. Web. August 15, 2009 <>.

Noel, Tomás Urayoán. “Nypr Blues: Experimentalism, Performance, and the Articulation of Diaspora in Nuyorican Poetry.” Dissertation. New York University, 2008. Print.

Opler, Marvin K. “On Lewis’ ‘Culture of Poverty’.” Current Anthropology 9 (1968): 451-52. Print.

Ortiz, Ana Teresa and Laura Briggs. “The Culture of Poverty, Crack Babies, and Welfare Cheats: The Making of the ‘Healthy White Baby Crisis’.” Social Text 76 21.3 (2003): 39-57. Print.

Ostriker, Alicia. “Introduction.” Empire of Dreams. New Haven: Yale UP, 1994. vii-xvi. Print.

Pelaez, Vicky. “The prison industry in the United States: big business or a new form of slavery?” New York, Global Research. El Diario-La Prensa. 2008. Web. <>.

Pharies, David A. A Brief History of the Spanish Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Print. 

Poole, Mary. The Segregated Origins of Social Security: African Americans and the Welfare State. The University of North Carolina Press, 2006. Print. 

Price, Richard. Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. Print. 

Rainwater, Lee. And the Poor Get Children: Sex, Contraception, and Family Planning in the Working Class. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1960. Print. 

Rainwater, Lee and William L. Yancey. The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy: A Trans-Action Social Science and Public Policy Report. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1967. Print. 

Ramos Otero, Manuel. “The Point Blank Page.” Trans. Kurt Hollander. Low Rent: a decade of prose and photographs from the portable lower east side. 1994. 3-24. Print.

Reid-Pharr, Robert F. “Tearing the Goat’s Flesh: Homosexuality, Abjection and the Production of a Late Twentieth-Century Black Masculinity.” Studies in the Novel 28.3 (1996): 372-94. Print.

Rivera, Carmen Vivian. “Our Movement: One Woman’s Story.” The Puerto Rican movement: voices from the diaspora. Eds. Andrés Torres and José E Velázquez. Vol. Puerto Rican studies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. 192-209. Print.

Rodríguez Ramos, Reniel. “From the Guanahatabey to the Archaic of Puerto Rico: The Nonevident Evidence.” Ethnohistory 55 (2008): 393-415. Print.

Rodríguez-Morazzani, Roberto P. “Political Cultures of the Puerto Rican Left in the United States.” The Puerto Rican movement: voices from the diaspora. Eds. Andrés Torres and José E Velázquez. Vol. Puerto Rican studies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. 25-47. Print.

Rodriguez, Abraham. Spidertown: A Novel. 1st ed., New York: Hyperion, 1993. Print. 

Rouse, Irving. The Tainos: Rise & Decline of the People Who Greeted Columbus. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. Print. 

Sánchez González, Lisa. Boricua Literature: A Literary History of the Puerto Rican Diaspora. New York: New York University Press, 2001. Print. 

Sánchez Korrol, Virginia. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Print. Latinos in American Society and Culture ; 5.

Sánchez, Marta E. “La Malinche at the Intersection: Race and Gender in Down These Mean Streets.” PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 113.1 (1998): 117-28. Print.

———. “Shakin’ Up” Race and Gender: Intercultural Connections in Puerto Rican, African American, and Chicano Narratives and Culture (1965-1995). Austin, TX: U of Texas P, 2005. Print. 

Santiago, Esmeralda. When I Was Puerto Rican. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1993. Print. 

Schoch, Patricia. “Translating the Short Stories of Wilfredo Braschi: A Voice of Twentieth-Century Puerto Rico.” Ph.D. The University of Texas at Dallas, 2005. Print.

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. Print. 

Ševčenko, Liz. “Making Loisaida: Placing Puertorriqueñidad in Lower Manhattan.” Mambo montage: the Latinization of New York. Eds. Agustín Laó-Montes and Arlene M. Dávila. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. 293-317. Print.

Shakur, Tupac. All Eyez on Me. 1 sound disc: digital, 2001. CD. 

Smith, Caleb. The Prison and the American Imagination (Yale Studies in English). Yale University Press, 2009. Print. 

Sommer, Doris and Alexandra Vega-Merino. “Either And.” Yo-Yo Boing! Discoveries. Pittsburg: Latin American Literary Review Press, 1998. 11-18. Print.

Stanchich, Maritza Giovanna. “Insular Interventions: Diasporic Puerto Rican Literature Bilanguaging Toward a Greater Puerto Rico.” Dissertation. University of California, Santa Cruz, 2003. Print.

Stephens, Dionne P. and April L Few. “Hip Hop Honey or Video Ho: African American Preadolescents’ Understanding of Female Sexual Scripts in Hip Hop Culture.” Sexuality and Culture 11.4 (2007): 48-69. Print.

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Stern, Steve J. Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World, 18th to 20th Centuries. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987. Print. 

Stewart, Donald. A Short History of East Harlem. New York: Museum of the City of New York, 1972. Print. 

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Thompson, E.P. “Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism.” Past and Present Society 38 (1967): 56-97. Web.

Torres-Padilla, José L. “When Hybridity Doesn’t Resist: Giannina Braschi’s Yo-Yo Boing!Complicating Constructions: Race, Ethnicity, and Hybridity in American Texts. Eds. David S. Goldstein and Audrey B. Thacker. American Ethnic and Cultural Studies. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007. 290-308. Print.

Torres, Andrés. “Introduction: Political Radicalism in the Diaspora—The Puerto Rican Experience.” The Puerto Rican movement: voices from the diaspora. Eds. Andrés Torres and José E Velázquez. Vol. Puerto Rican studies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. 1-22. Print.

Torres, Lourdes. Puerto Rican Discourse. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997. Print. Everyday Communication.

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United States Department of Agriculture. “Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Frequently Asked Questions.” 2009. Web. November 30, 2009 <>.

Urciuoli, Bonnie. Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences of Language, Race, and Class. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996. Print. 

Valentine, Charles A. “The ‘Culture of Poverty’: Its Scientific Significance and Its Implications For Action.” The Culture of Poverty: A Critique. Ed. Eleanor Burke Leacock. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971. 193-225. Print.

Vega Yunqué, Edgardo. Mendoza’s Dreams. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1987. Print. 

———. The Lamentable Journey of Omaha Bigelow Into the Impenetrable Loisaida Jungle. 1st ed., Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 2004. Print. 

Vega, Ed. The Comeback. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1985. Print. 

Wacquant, Loïc. Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity. Duke University Press, 2009. Print. 

Wagenheim, Olga Jiménez de. Puerto Rico: An Interpretive History From Pre-Columbian Times to 1900. Princeton, N.J: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1998. Print. 

Wald, Johanna and Daniel J. Losen. Deconstructing the School-to-Prison Pipeline: New Directions for Youth Development, No. 99. Jossey-Bass, 2003. Print. 

Young, Vernetta D. and Rebecca Reviere. Women Behind Bars: Gender and Race in US Prisons. Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005. Print. 

Yudice, George. “For a Practical Aesthetics.” Social Text 25/26 (1990): 129-45. Print.